There are many swollen testicle causes that are mainly due to underlying medical conditions that produce discomforts and painful symptoms. The testicles, also called as testes located inside the scrotum, are responsible in producing male hormones and sperms. Different conditions can cause the testicles to swell which can lead to sexual dysfunctions, complications, hormonal imbalances, and infertility in males.
- Trauma. Testicular trauma is common due to lack of supporting muscles and bones on the scrotum where the testicles are located. The scrotum can easily get struck in accidents or contact sports that cause the testicles to swell. Severe pain, inflammation and swelling occur. Direct blow on the scrotum can cause bruising and blood may leak into the scrotum. Testicular rupture can also occur due to direct blows on the testicles or when it is squeezed on a hard surface.
- Testicular torsion. This occurs when the testicles receive poor blood supply when the spermatic cord is twisted thereby impeding the blood circulation to the testes. This causes severe pain, inflammation, swollen testicles and tenderness. Prolonged deprivation of blood supply to the testicles can cause permanent damage to it which requires the surgical removal of the testes.
- Testicular cancer. Testicular cells undergo uncontrolled growth and division resulting to lump formation, testicular enlargement, swollen testicles, aching pain on the abdomen, painful and tender testicles. Surgical removal of the testicular cancer cells is the treatment option for this condition.
- Hydrocele. When the two membranes covering the testicles are filled with fluid it causes the testicles to swell. The swelling is often painless but can progressively increase within a period of weeks or months. Once chronically swollen, the fluids may be extracted by a needle or by surgery.
- Orchitis. The formation of mumps causes the testicles to swell which is often accompanied with ejaculation of blood in the urine. It causes severe pain but is treatable with antibiotics.
- Epididymitis. The epididymis is the rear part of the testicles that swells due to infection or growth of a cyst. Cysts usually resolve on their own causing no serious concern with the swelling of the testicle. Urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted diseases can cause bacterial epididymitis with resulting swollen testicles that requires antibiotic treatment.
- Varicocele. The veins in the testicles become swollen. When it does it can block the blood supply in the testicles with a resulting low sperm count. Surgical removal of the abnormal vein can provide relief from a painful and swollen testicle.